One Ivy-League president, asked recently about PhD oversupply, said that if the top universities cut back others will step in to offer them instead. Student teachers in public universities such as the University of Wisconsin-Madison formed unions as early as the s, but the pace of unionisation has increased recently. help on essay writing topics in english for class 6 In most countries a PhD is a basic requirement for a career in academia.
Proponents of the PhD argue that it is worthwhile even if it does not lead to permanent academic employment. Brilliant, well-trained minds can go to waste when fashions change. writing assignment help values PhD courses are so specialised that university careers offices struggle to assist graduates looking for jobs, and supervisors tend to have little interest in students who are leaving academia. In research the story is similar. The fiercest critics compare research doctorates to Ponzi or pyramid schemes.
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American universities geared up first: Academics tend to regard asking whether a PhD is worthwhile as analogous to wondering whether there is too much art or culture in the world. In research the story is similar. The requirements to complete one vary enormously between countries, universities and even subjects. Seven-day weeks, ten-hour days, low pay and uncertain prospects are widespread.
In some countries, such as Britain and America, poor pay and job prospects are reflected in the number of foreign-born PhD students. Some university departments and academics regard numbers of PhD graduates as an indicator of success and compete to produce more. The organisations that pay for research have realised that many PhDs find it tough to transfer their skills into the job market.
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Research at one American university found that those who finish are no cleverer than those who do not. In the qualitative phase, two case studies one in Fako and another in Ndian were undertaken to provide greater depth and understanding. buy a college research paper keywords Nearly half of engineering students admitted to this.
Mpako Makolle, Koge Henry Job satisfaction and work motivation of secondary school teachers: PhD courses are so specialised that university careers offices struggle to assist graduates looking for jobs, and supervisors tend to have little interest in students who are leaving academia. PhD thesis, University of Warwick.
But universities have discovered that PhD students are cheap, highly motivated and disposable labour. Job satisfaction and work motivation are very important management concepts but the conceptual and empirical literature are predominantly from western countries, with only limited literature from African scholars and very little focused on the Cameroon context. order a pay per view The requirements to complete one vary enormously between countries, universities and even subjects.
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Academics tend to regard asking whether a PhD is worthwhile as analogous to wondering whether there is too much art or culture in the world. Someone should write a thesis about that. Using PhD students to do much of the undergraduate teaching cuts the number of full-time jobs.
But there are penalties, as well as benefits, to staying at university. The requirements to complete one vary enormously between countries, universities and even subjects. In research the story is similar. Where penalties are levied on academics who allow PhDs to overrun, the number of students who complete rises abruptly, suggesting that students were previously allowed to fester.
Foreign students tend to tolerate poorer working conditions, and the supply of cheap, brilliant, foreign labour also keeps wages down. Many students say they are pursuing their subject out of love, and that education is an end in itself. Writing one is the aim of the hundreds of thousands of students who embark on a doctorate of philosophy PhD every year. Get updates Get updates.